PUDO Mobile App Experience
Duration .  13 weeks
National University of Singapore      x    TUM Asia

With more autonomous vehicles in Singapore, how can we prepare for better safety, experience and efficiency for users in cities.
I worked on
User research
Graphic Design
PUDO : Pick Up and Drop of point
Current data shows the rise of autonomous vehicles throughout our cities, especially when it comes to ride hailing vehicles. However,  ride hailing applications have yet to accommodate to these vehicles making the experience in pick up and drop off points harder for users and vehicles to navigate.
Multiple solutions around the PUDO and existing applications provides a better flow of autonomous vehicle and a better experience for users.

Secondary Research and Observations

We understand more of the opportunities and limitations of an autonomous vehicle and observed how this would affect current PUDO locations through observations and interviews with people on site.

We also simulated certain scenarios with ride hailing autonomous vehicles in mind to find more pain points.
Prior Research

User Research + Competitors Analysis

We analyzed  current ride hailing applications to find its limitations and opportunities within the app. By taking into consideration of the normalization of autonomous vehicles within Singapore, we discuss new features that would be beneficial to the user.

Simulating scenarios & userflows

During our simulation of location with users, we introduced the new features within applications that the user is familiar with. Upon testing the prototypes with an A/B test, we gather data such as how confident users are with the new features.


We used current research findings and prototyping to come up with suitable solutions for the challenges faced
Key Challenges
No waiting

Pick up drop off points do not allow waiting, making it a stressful and inefficient time when a autonomous vehicle arrives.

Users are not comfortable to ride in autonomous vehicles due to the lack of control and dehumanizing factor.


Users needed to understand and be aware of new features added into their existing application.

People With Disabilities

People with disabilities should be considered, requiring specific vehicles, more time and space.
Giving users pre-booking information
By Notifying and allowing users to choose specific options beforehand on location specific limitations, we can improve the experience on passenger pick up at location.
Humanizing the Robots
By humanizing the ride hailing experience and giving more control to passengers in autonomous vehicles, we can improve the experience of passengers in these vehicles.
User Research and Competitors Analysis
We analyze many ride hailing application to summaries the optimum and most common user flow allowing for our solutions to be easily adopted.
User Flow Diagram
User flow diagrams allows us to easily and clearly visualize users experiences in relation to application interfaces.
Here is our recommendations for ...
Onboarding the Users
Better adoption and awareness of features
Pre-booking Information
More information for a better users decision
Humanizing the AV experience
Better users comfort and trust
Working on existing applications
As there are already many well established ride hailing applications, it is more cost effective and
easier for users adoption to work with existing applications.
Users are unaware or not confident with using new features causing the lack of adoption.
Minor prompts and easy steps to get users onboard and aware of how to use the new features.
Onboarding User Flow Diagram
The user flow diagram below showcases the steps and conditions needed to ensure the optimum onboarding experience for users.
Finding a Ride
Users are unaware of location specific limitation as well as a difficulty in gauging when their vehicle has arrive. Causing a stressful user experience.
Using minor prompts as well as an information slider, allows users to make a better informed decision.
People with Disabilities
Users with disabilities have to be taken into consideration. Each person has specific needs and limitations resulting in a customizable user experiences.
In the Ride
Users are not confident in the Autonomous vehicle resulting in a stressful and uptight experience.
Humanizing the interface with graphics and copywriting. Additionally the visualization of the AV's decision and minor controls from the user.
What we have learned
- Chance to dive deeper into user research and user experience.

- Ability to create User interfaces that are clear and easy to understand.

- Ability to pin point feasible solutions with better effort to impact ratios.
Under the guidance of
Dr. Jung Joo Lee

National University of Singapore  X  TUM Asia